Platelet-Rich Plasma: Implications for Wound Healing

Growth Factor Analysis (PRP Injections): Growth factors released from activated platelets initiate and modulate wound healing in both soft and hard tissues. The concentration of growth factors also increased with increasing platelet number.

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Platelet Recovery and Activation:

Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is an autologous concentration of human platelets in a small volume of plasma. Therefore, the term PRP is preferred to autologous platelet gel, plasma-rich growth factors (PRGFs), or a mere autologous platelet concentrate. Because it is a concentration of platelets, it is also a concentration of the 7 fundamental protein growth factors proved to be actively secreted by platelets to initiate all wound
healing. These growth factors include the 3 isomeres of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF, PDGF, and PDGF), 2 of the numerous transforming
growth factors- (TGF1 and TGF2), vascular endothelial growth factor, and epithelial growth factor. All of these growth factors have been documented toexist in platelets.1,2 Because these concentrated platelets are suspended in a small volume of plasma, PRP is more that just a platelet concentrate; it also contains the 3 proteins in blood known to act as cell adhesion molecules for osteoconduction and as a matrix for bone, connective tissue, and epithelial migration. These cell adhesion molecules are fibrin itself, fibronectin, and vitronectin.

Platelet concentrates are potentially useful in wound-healing applications because they function as both a tissue sealant and a drug delivery system that contains a host of powerful mitogenic and chemotactic growth factors. However, the method of platelet-rich plasma preparation has a potentially significant impact on the different levels of platelet recovery and activation.

What is the Safety of PRP?

Because it is an autogenous preparation, PRP is inherently safe and therefore free from concerns over transmissible diseases such as HIV, hepatitis, West Nile fever, and Cruetzfeld-Jacob disease (CJD) (“mad cow disease”). It therefore is also well accepted by patients.

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